What is hematuria?
The presence of visible blood in the urine (hematuria, medical term) is not normal and is an occasion to consult the doctor, even if it disappears quickly or spontaneously. The cause of hematuria must be clarified because sometimes it can be consequence of a serious illness. Although adoption of medications that dilute the blood (anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents) could strengthen the hematuria, they are not sufficient to explain it. In these cases again it should not be underestimated and the reasons for its presence should be specified.
Hematuria may be accompanied by clots and in these cases you should take more fluids to dilute the urine (about 2 liters / day). Need of urgent medical attention is required only when blood clots are heavy and cause obstruction with inability to urinate spontaneously (the so called Tamponade ofbladder).
What are the most common diseases leading to hematuria?
Bleeding may be the origin of different levels of genito-urinary system and the reason is due to a problem in the kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra or prostate in men.
In case of blood in the urine it is a priority to seek several diseases that really are the most common or most “terrible” reasons for it:
1. Infection of urine with or without presence of high temperature can often be the cause of hematuria:
– Cystitis- here the bleeding is due to inflammation of the bladder wall
– Pielonefrit – an infection of the kidney, which can occur spontaneously as a result of neglected / or untreated cystitis or a consequence of kidney stone.
2. Stones in the kidney or ureter – in these cases, hematuria is volatile and can be preceded or accompanied by dull pain in the hip or kidney failure.
3. Bladder tumors – periodic and painless hematuria is often the only symptom of tumors in the bladder as a risk group is older men, especially smokers.
4. A tumor of the kidney
How does the examination at urologist goes?
The examination begins with a conversation with the patient to ensure that bleeding is in the urine and it is not a case of vaginal bleeding or blood in the semen, and it is accompanied by additional symptoms:
– pain in the kidney
– painful urination
– PAD urgency
– difficult urination
Do you have to test?
Most often they are required to find the cause of bleeding in the urine:
– Testing simple urine to prove the presence of blood and bacteria or crystals
– Microbiological testing of urine for searching bacteria and proving urinary infection.
– Blood testing to determine kidney function.
– Ultrasound of kidney and bladder
– Scanner or magnetic resonance – if necessary
Based on studies carried out if the cause of the hematuria is determined, your urologist will appoint the appropriate treatment. In cases when the reason is not understood, there may be recommended further tests such as cystoscopy or ureteroscopy, which seek conditions that are difficult to detect with routine imaging.